Magical swords in Eletreus are, for the most part, made the same way swords have always been made – take a lump of steel, heat it in a fire, and – using various mundane techniques – bang it out into something sword shaped..
The difference is that most magical swords are made by a handful of highly specialized alchemists who – while not spell casters in the normal sense of the word – combine magical transmutation methods with mundane blacksmithing skill.
Coronatite Alloy Forging: Coronatite is a rare meteoric iron with natural magical properties and is used as a base for almost all magical sword forging methods in one way or another. But one of the earliest techniques, and one still practiced to this day, requires no magical skills and can be made by anyone with the right training and tools – and that is alloy forging the Coronatite with equal parts conventional steel. When the correct mass is achieved, the alloyed steel begins to glow with its own orange light, and can be wrought into either a shorter blade like a Gladius or stretched out to a long rapier. The most famous example of a Coronatite sword is of course the Aelutian Gladius.
Runesmithing/Magesmithing: Invented in Notarikon and still practiced to this day. Runesmithing involves magical etching of common, carbon steel weapons with runes made from liquid Coronatite. Around 80 runes exist, each with its own elemental connection or imbues its weapon with special properties (such as turning a Castir into a fire/electric elemental weapon or creating a nigh-indestructible falchion). The resulting Rune Weapons cannot be further imbued with spells by a magic caster and its abilities are fixed. Any caster attempting to imbue spells to a rune weapon will have their spells dispelled. A single weapon can mount up to 6 runes in modern days. Ancient weapons could have more than 10. A runic weapon usually has horimono or ancient letters inscribed in the blade or in the tang.
Core-forging: The method of building longer and more powerful magic weapons from Coronatite. This method uses a core of Coronatite wrapped tight inside the weapon. Similar to modern-day lamination. This method is exceedingly difficult to pull off without specialized training and has a very high failure rate even for experienced mage-smiths.
Blood quenching: A rather macabre name for a technique of enchanting swords that was practiced by the earliest tribes and Kingdoms of Eletrues. The blood of a handful of inherently magical creatures results in different special properties in each blade. A blade quenched in dragon blood might be incredibly resilient and give its user a larger mana/energy pool to draw from while a blade quenched in vampire blood might give its user regenerative abilities and extrasensory perception.
Quicksteel: A forging technique known only to the Elves of the Eleven Homelands, Quicksteel or Elfsteel as it is sometimes called comes from a single pool of liquid steel that is cool to the touch and, when poured into a mold and worked by magical incantations known only to a handful of Elven Smiths that were passed down through the generations. Quicksteel is almost a third lighter than normal steel, and when in liquid state, absorbs further magical enchantment very easily so most blades made from Elfsteel have several additional powers and enchantments. The Vorpal Sword is a classic example of an Elven Longsword made from Quicksteel.
Blessed Swords: These are, for the most part, normal swords that have been either wielded by a saint or a great hero that have absorbed part of their owners essence or swords that have been forged by a holy man over a long period of time following a strict and unrelenting process of fasting, prayer, meditation and of course, blade forging. Most swords made in Lhasa use this technique to produce Energy Swords used by Monks and Adepts, but they have been made elsewhere at various times and places, but because they take the longest to make (usually making one of these is a LIFETIME process lasting at least a couple of decades) are exceedingly rare.
Ensouled Blades: These were either magical or mundane swords that have contain the very soul essence of a willing and powerful individual, and the powers than emanate from it mirror the personality and essence of the entity who possess it. The two most powerful swords in Eletreus, the Flame of the Host and the Brand of the Fallen are the most well known examples of Ensouled blades, but there are others..
A variation of an Ensouled blade is an enchanted sword that starts to take on a personality of its own over the aeons and becomes an entity in its own right, with its own (often obscure and almost always alien) motivations, thought patterns and unique quirks. The Sword of Danu is a classic example of an Ensouled sword that developed organically rather than a spirit that entered the blade of its own accord.